1)开始时对听众的称呼语 最常用的是 Ladies and gentlemen，也可根据不同情况，选用 Fellow students, Distinguished guests, Mr Chairman, Honorable Judges(评委)等等。
5)结尾 结尾要简洁，不要拉拉扯扯，说个没完。特别是不要受汉语影响，说些类似“准备不足，请谅解”，“请批评指正”这样的废话。最普通的结尾就是：Thank you very much for your attention。
Ladies and Gentlemen , Good afternoon! I'm very glad to stand here and give you a short speech. today my topic is “youth”。 I hope you will like it , and found the importance in your youth so that more cherish it.
First I want to ask you some questions:
1、 Do you know what is youth?
2、 How do you master your youth?
Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind ; it is not rosy cheeks , red lips and supple knees, it is a matter of the emotions : it is the freshne; it is the freshneof the deep springs of life .
Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity of the appetite , for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20 . Nobody grows old merely by a number of years . We grow old by deserting our ideals.
Years wrinkle the skin , but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul . Worry , fear , self –distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust .
Whether 60 of 16 , there is in every human being 's heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing childlike appetite of what's next and the joy of the game of living . In the center of your heart and my heart there's a wirelestation : so long as it receives messages of beauty , hope ,cheer, courage and power from men and from the infinite, so long as you are young .
When the aerials are down , and your spirit is covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism, then you are grown old ,even at 20 , but as long as your aerials are up ,to catch waves of optimism , there is hope you may die young at 80.